COMPLIANCE RESOURCE CENTER



49 CFR - CHAPTER I - PART 180


§  180.407 Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.


(a) General. (1) A cargo tank constructed in accordance with a DOT specification for which a test or inspection specified in this section has become due, may not be filled and offered for transportation or transported until the test or inspection has been successfully completed. This paragraph does not apply to any cargo tank filled prior to the test or inspection due date.

(2) Except during a pressure test or during loading or unloading, a cargo tank may not be subjected to a pressure greater than its design pressure or MAWP.

(3) A person witnessing or performing a test or inspection specified in this section must meet the minimum qualifications prescribed in §  180.409.

(4) Each cargo tank must be evaluated in accordance with the acceptable results of tests and inspections prescribed in §  180.411.

(5) Each cargo tank which has successfully passed a test or inspection specified in this section must be marked in accordance with §  180.415.

(6) A cargo tank which fails a prescribed test or inspection must:

(i) Be repaired and retested in accordance with §  180.413; or

(ii) Be removed from hazardous materials service and the specification plate removed, obliterated or covered in a secure manner.

(b) Conditions requiring test and inspection of cargo tanks. Without regard to any other test or inspection requirements, a specification cargo tank must be tested and inspected in accordance with this section prior to further use if:

(1) The cargo tank shows evidence of bad dents, corroded or abraded areas, leakage, or any other condition that might render it unsafe for transportation service.

(2) The cargo tank has been in an accident and has been damaged to an extent that may adversely affect its lading retention capability.

(3) The cargo tank has been out of hazardous materials transportation service for a period of one year or more. Each cargo tank that has been out of hazardous materials transportation service for a period of one year or more must be pressure tested in accordance with §  180.407(g) prior to further use.

(4) The cargo tank has been modified from its original design specification.

(5) The Department so requires based on the existence of probable cause that the cargo tank is in an unsafe operating condition.

(c) Periodic test and inspection. Each specification cargo tank must be tested and inspected as specified in the following table by an inspector meeting the qualifications in §  180.409.

      Compliance Dates--Inspections and Test Under Sec. 180.407(C)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Date by which
   Test or inspection (cargo tank     first test must be     Interval
  specification, configuration, and     completed (see     period after
              service)                      note 1)         first test
------------------------------------------------------------------------
External Visual Inspection:
    All cargo tanks designed to be    September 1, 1991.  6 months.
     loaded by vacuum with full
     opening rear heads.
    All other cargo tanks...........  September 1, 1991.  1 year.
Internal Visual Inspection:
    All insulated cargo tanks,        September 1, 1991.  1 year.
     except MC 330, MC 331, MC 338.
    All cargo tanks transporting      September 1, 1991.  1 year.
     lading corrosive to the tank.
    All other cargo tanks, except MC  September 1, 1995.  5 years.
     338.
Lining Inspection:
    All lined cargo tanks             September 1, 1991.  1 year.
     transporting lading corrosive
     to the tank.
Leakage Test:
    MC 330 and MC 331 cargo tanks in  September 1, 1991.  2 years.
     chlorine service.
    All other cargo tanks except MC   September 1, 1991.  1 year.
     338.
Pressure Test:
    (Hydrostatic or pneumatic) (See   ..................  ..............
     Notes 2 and 3).
    All cargo tanks which are         September 1, 1991.  1 year.
     insulated with no manhole or
     insulated and lined, except MC
     338.
    All cargo tanks designed to be    September 1, 1992.  2 years.
     loaded by vacuum with full
     opening rear heads.
    MC 330 and MC 331 cargo tanks in  September 1, 1992.  2 years.
     chlorine service.
    All other cargo tanks...........  September 1, 1995.  5 years.
Thickness Test:
    All unlined cargo tanks           September 1, 1992.  2 years.
     transporting material corrosive
     to the tank, except MC 338.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note 1: If a cargo tank is subject to an applicable inspection or test
  requirement under the regulations in effect on December 30, 1990, and
  the due date (as specified by a requirement in effect on December 30,
  1990) for completing the required inspection or test occurs before the
  compliance date listed in table I, the earlier date applies.
Note 2: Pressure testing is not required for MC 330 and MC 331 cargo
  tanks in dedicated sodium metal service.
Note 3: Pressure testing is not required for uninsulated lined cargo
  tanks, with a design pressure or MAWP 15 psig or less, which receive
  an external visual inspection and lining inspection at least once each
  year.

(d) External visual inspection and testing. (1) Where insulation precludes external visual inspection, the cargo tank, other than an MC 330 or MC 331 cargo tank, must be given a visual internal inspection in accordance with §  180.407(e). The tank must be hydrostatically or pneumatically tested in accordance with §  180.407(c) and (g) where:

(i) Visual inspection is precluded by internal lining or coating, or

(ii) The cargo tank is not equipped with a manhole or inspection opening.

(2) The external visual inspection and testing must include as a minimum the following:

(i) The tank shell and heads must be inspected for corroded or abraded areas, dents, distortions, defects in welds and any other conditions, including leakage, that might render the tank unsafe for transportation service;

(ii) The piping, valves, and gaskets must be carefully inspected for corroded areas, defects in welds, and other conditions, including leakage, that might render the tank unsafe for transportation service;

(iii) All devices for tightening manhole covers must be operative and there must be no evidence of leakage at manhole covers or gaskets;

(iv) All emergency devices and valves including self-closing stop valves, excess flow valves and remote closure devices must be free from corrosion, distortion, erosion and any external damage that will prevent safe operation. Remote closure devices and self-closing stop valves must be functioned to demonstrate proper operation;

(v) Missing bolts, nuts and fusible links or elements must be replaced, and loose bolts and nuts must be tightened;

(vi) All markings on the cargo tank required by parts 172, 178 and 180 of this subchapter must be legible;

(vii) [Reserved]

(viii) All major appurtenances and structural attachments on the cargo tank including, but not limited to, suspension system attachments, connecting structures, and those elements of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly that can be inspected without dismantling the upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly must be inspected for any corrosion or damage which might prevent safe operation;

(ix) For cargo tanks transporting lading corrosive to the tank, areas covered by the upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly must be inspected at least once in each two year period for corroded and abraded areas, dents, distortions, defects in welds, and any other condition that might render the tank unsafe for transportation service. The upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly must be removed from the cargo tank for this inspection.

(3) All reclosing pressure relief valves must be externally inspected for any corrosion or damage which might prevent safe operation. All reclosing pressure relief valves on cargo tanks carrying lading corrosive to the valve must be removed from the cargo tank for inspection and testing. Each reclosing pressure relief valve required to be removed and tested must open at the required set pressure and reseat to a leak-tight condition at 90 percent of the set-to-discharge pressure or the pressure prescribed for the applicable cargo tank specification.

(4) Corroded or abraded areas of the cargo tank wall must be thickness tested in accordance with the procedures set forth in paragraphs (i)(2), (i)(3), (i)(5) and (i)(6) of this section.

(5) The gaskets on any full opening rear head must be:

(i) Visually inspected for cracks or splits caused by weather or wear; and

(ii) Replaced if cuts or cracks which are likely to cause leakage, or are of a depth one-half inch or more, are found.

(6) The inspector must record the results of the external visual examination as specified in §  180.417(b).

(e) Internal visual inspection. (1) When the cargo tank is not equipped with a manhole or inspection opening, or the cargo tank design precludes an internal inspection, the tank shall be hydrostatically or pneumatically tested in accordance with 180.407(c) and (g).

(2) The internal visual inspection must include as a minimum the following:

(i) The tank shell and heads must be inspected for corroded and abraded areas, dents, distortions, defects in welds, and any other condition that might render the tank unsafe for transportation service.

(ii) Tank liners must be inspected as specified in §  180.407(f).

(3) Corroded or abraded areas of the cargo tank wall must be thickness tested in accordance with paragraphs (i)(2), (i)(3), (i)(5) and (i)(6) of this section.

(4) The inspector must record the results of the internal visual inspection as specified in §  180.417(b).

(f) Lining inspection. The integrity of the lining on all lined cargo tanks, when lining is required by this subchapter, must be verified at least once each year as follows:

(1) Rubber (elastomeric) lining must be tested for holes as follows:

(i) Equipment must consist of:

(A) A high frequency spark tester capable of producing sufficient voltage to ensure proper calibration;

(B) A probe with an "L" shaped 2.4 mm (0.09 inch) diameter wire with up to a 30.5 cm (12-inch) bottom leg (end bent to a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) radius), or equally sensitive probe; and

(C) A steel calibration coupon 30.5 cm × 30.5 cm (12 inches × 12 inches) covered with the same material and thickness as that to be tested. The material on the coupon shall have a test hole to the metal substrate made by puncturing the material with a 22 gauge hypodermic needle or comparable piercing tool.

(ii) The probe must be passed over the surface of the calibration coupon in a constant uninterrupted manner until the hole is found. The hole is detected by the white or light blue spark formed. (A sound lining causes a dark blue or purple spark.) The voltage must be adjusted to the lowest setting that will produce a minimum 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) spark measured from the top of the lining to the probe. To assure that the setting on the probe has not changed, the spark tester must be calibrated periodically using the test calibration coupon, and the same power source, probe, and cable length.

(iii) After calibration, the probe must be passed over the lining in an uninterrupted stroke.

(iv) Holes that are found must be repaired using equipment and procedures prescribed by the lining manufacturer or lining installer.

(2) Linings made of other than rubber (elastomeric material) must be tested using equipment and procedures prescribed by the lining manufacturer or lining installer.

(3) Degraded or defective areas of the cargo tank liner must be removed and the cargo tank wall below the defect must be inspected. Corroded areas of the tank wall must be thickness tested in accordance with paragraphs (i)(2), (i)(3), (i)(5) and (i)(6) of this section.

(4) The inspector must record the results of the lining inspection as specified in §  180.417(b).

(g) Pressure test. All components of the cargo tank wall, as defined in §  178.320(a) of this subchapter, must be pressure tested as prescribed by this paragraph.

(1) Test Procedure -- (i) As part of the pressure test, the inspector must perform an external and internal visual inspection, except that on an MC 338 cargo tank, or a cargo tank not equipped with a manhole or inspection opening, an internal inspection is not required.

(ii) All reclosing pressure relief valves must be:

(A) Removed from the cargo tank for inspection and testing. Each reclosing pressure relief valve must open at the required set pressure and reseat to a leak-tight condition at 90 percent of the set-to-discharge pressure or the pressure prescribed for the applicable cargo tank specification; or,

(B) Replaced.

(iii) Except for cargo tanks carrying lading corrosive to the tank, areas covered by the upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly must be inspected for corroded and abraded areas, dents, distortions, defects in welds, and any other condition that might render the tank unsafe for transportation service. The upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly must be removed from the cargo tank for this inspection.

(iv) Each cargo tank must be tested hydrostatically or pneumatically to the internal pressure specified in the following table:

 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Specification                        Test pressure
------------------------------------------------------------------------
MC 300, 301, 302, 303, 305, 306........  20.7 kPa (3 psig) or design
                                          pressure, whichever is
                                          greater.
MC 304, 307............................  275.8 kPa (40 psig) or 1.5
                                          times the design pressure,
                                          whichever is greater.
MC 310, 311, 312.......................  20.7 kPa (3 psig) or 1.5 times
                                          the design pressure, whichever
                                          is greater.
MC 330, 331............................  1.5 times either the MAWP or
                                          the re-rated pressure,
                                          whichever is applicable.
MC 338.................................  1.25 times either the MAWP or
                                          the re-rated pressure,
                                          whichever is applicable.
DOT 406................................  34.5 kPa (5 psig) or 1.5 times
                                          the MAWP, whichever is
                                          greater.
DOT 407................................  275.8 kPa (40 psig) or 1.5
                                          times the MAWP, whichever is
                                          greater.
DOT 412................................  1.5 times the MAWP.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

(v) Each owner of 5 or more MC 300, MC 301, MC 302, MC 303, MC 304, MC 305, MC 306, MC 307, MC 310, MC 311, or MC 312 cargo tanks must pressure test at least 20 percent of the cargo tanks in his ownership each year beginning in 1991. The owner of fewer than five MC specification cargo tanks has until August 31, 1995, to pressure test these units.

(vi) Each cargo tank of a multi-tank cargo tank motor vehicle must be tested with the adjacent cargo tanks empty and at atmospheric pressure.

(vii) All closures except pressure relief devices must be in place during the test. All prescribed loading and unloading venting devices rated at less than test pressure may be removed during the test. If retained, the devices must be rendered inoperative by clamps, plugs, or other equally effective restraining devices. Restraining devices may not prevent detection of leaks or damage the venting devices and must be removed immediately after the test is completed.

(viii) Hydrostatic test method. Each cargo tank, including its domes, must be filled with water or other liquid having similar viscosity, at a temperature not exceeding 100 °F. The cargo tank must then be pressurized to not less than the pressure specified in paragraph (g)(1)(iv) of this section. The cargo tank, including its closures, must hold the prescribed test pressure for at least 10 minutes during which time it shall be inspected for leakage, bulging or any other defect.

(ix) Pneumatic test method. Pneumatic testing may involve higher risk than hydrostatic testing. Therefore, suitable safeguards must be provided to protect personnel and facilities should failure occur during the test. The cargo tank must be pressurized with air or an inert gas. The pneumatic test pressure in the cargo tank must be reached by gradually increasing the pressure to one-half of the test pressure. Thereafter, the pressure must be increased in steps of approximately one-tenth of the test pressure until the required test pressure has been reached. The test pressure must be held for at least 5 minutes. The pressure must then be reduced to the MAWP, which must be maintained during the time the entire cargo tank surface is inspected. During the inspection, a suitable method must be used for detecting the existence of leaks. This method must consist either of coating the entire surface of all joints under pressure with a solution of soap and water, or using other equally sensitive methods.

(2) When testing an insulated cargo tank, the insulation and jacketing need not be removed unless it is otherwise impossible to reach test pressure and maintain a condition of pressure equilibrium after test pressure is reached, or the vacuum integrity cannot be maintained in the insulation space. If an MC 338 cargo tank used for the transportation of a flammable gas or oxygen, refrigerated liquid is opened for any reason, the cleanliness must be verified prior to closure using the procedures contained in §  178.338-15 of this subchapter.

(3) Each MC 330 and MC 331 cargo tank constructed of quenched and tempered steel (Part UHT of the ASME Code), or constructed of other than quenched and tempered steel but without postweld heat treatment, used for the transportation of anhydrous ammonia, or any other hazardous materials that may cause corrosion stress cracking, must be internally inspected by the wet fluorescent magnetic particle method immediately prior to and in conjunction with the performance of the pressure test prescribed in this section. Each MC 330 and MC 331 cargo tank constructed of quenched and tempered steel (Part UHT of the ASME Code) used for the transportation of liquefied petroleum gas must be internally inspected by the wet fluorescent magnetic particle method immediately prior to and in conjunction with the performance of the pressure test prescribed in this section. The wet fluorescent magnetic particle inspection must be in accordance with Section V of the ASME Code and CGA Technical Bulletin TB-2. This paragraph does not apply to cargo tanks that do not have manholes. (See §  180.417(c) for reporting requirements.)

(4) All pressure bearing portions of a cargo tank heating system employing a medium such as, but not limited to, steam or hot water for heating the lading must be hydrostatically pressure tested at least once every 5 years. The test pressure must be at least 1.5 times the heating system design pressure and must be maintained for five minutes. A heating system employing flues for heating the lading must be tested to ensure against lading leakage into the flues or into the atmosphere.

(5) Exceptions. (i) Pressure testing is not required for MC 330 and MC 331 cargo tanks in dedicated sodium metal service.

(ii) Pressure testing is not required for uninsulated lined cargo tanks, with a design pressure or MAWP of 15 psig or less, which receive an external visual inspection and a lining inspection at least once each year.

(6) Acceptance criteria. A cargo tank that leaks, fails to retain test pressure or pneumatic inspection pressure, shows distortion, excessive permanent expansion, or other evidence of weakness that might render the cargo tank unsafe for transportation service, may not be returned to service, except as follows: A cargo tank with a heating system which does not hold pressure may remain in service as an unheated cargo tank if:

(i) The heating system remains in place and is structurally sound and no lading may leak into the heating system, and

(ii) The specification plate heating system information is changed to indicate that the cargo tank has no working heating system.

(7) The inspector must record the results of the pressure test as specified in §  180.417(b).

(h) Leakage test. (1) Each cargo tank must be tested for leaks in accordance with §  180.407(c). The leakage test must include product piping with all valves and accessories in place and operative, except that any venting devices set to discharge at less than the leakage test pressure must be removed or rendered inoperative during the test. Test pressure must be maintained at least 5 minutes. Suitable safeguards must be provided to protect personnel should a failure occur. MC 330 and MC 331 cargo tanks may be leakage tested with the hazardous materials contained in the tank during the test. Leakage test pressure must be not less than 80 percent of the tank design pressure or MAWP, whichever is marked on the certification or specification plate, except as follows:

(i) A cargo tank with an MAWP of 690 kPa (100 psig) or more may be leakage tested at its maximum normal operating pressure provided it is in dedicated service or services; or

(ii) An MC 330 or MC 331 cargo tank in dedicated liquified petroleum gas service may be leakage tested at not less than 414 kPa (60 psig).

(iii) An operator of a specification MC 330 or MC 331 cargo tank, and a nonspecification cargo tank authorized under §  173.315(k) of this subchapter, equipped with a meter may check leak tightness of the internal self-closing stop valve by conducting a meter creep test. (See appendix B to this part.)

(2) Cargo tanks equipped with vapor collection equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's "Method 27 -- Determination of Vapor Tightness of Gasoline Delivery Tank Using Pressure-Vacuum Test," as set forth in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. Acceptance criteria are found at 40 CFR 60.501.

(3) A cargo tank that fails to retain leakage test pressure may not be returned to service as a specification cargo tank, except under conditions specified in §  180.411(d).

(4) After July 1, 2000, Registered Inspectors of specification MC 330 and MC 331 cargo tanks, and nonspecification cargo tanks authorized under §  173.315(k) of this subchapter must visually inspect the delivery hose assembly and piping system while the assembly is under leakage test pressure utilizing the rejection criteria listed in §  180.416(g). Delivery hose assemblies not permanently attached to the cargo tank motor vehicle may be inspected separately from the cargo tank motor vehicle. In addition to a written record of the inspection prepared in accordance with §  180.417(b), the Registered Inspector conducting the test must note the hose identification number, the date of the test, and the condition of the hose assembly and piping system tested.

(5) The inspector must record the results of the leakage test as specified in §  180.417(b).

(i) Thickness testing. (1) The shell and head thickness of all unlined cargo tanks used for the transportation of materials corrosive to the tank must be measured at least once every 2 years, except that cargo tanks measuring less than the sum of the minimum prescribed thickness, plus one-fifth of the original corrosion allowance, must be tested annually.

(2) Measurements must be made using a device capable of accurately measuring thickness to within ±0.002 of an inch.

(3) Any person performing thickness testing must be trained in the proper use of the thickness testing device used in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction.

(4) Thickness testing must be performed in the following areas of the cargo tank wall, as a minimum:

(i) Areas of the tank shell and heads and shell and head area around any piping that retains lading;

(ii) Areas of high shell stress such as the bottom center of the tank;

(iii) Areas near openings;

(iv) Areas around weld joints;

(v) Areas around shell reinforcements;

(vi) Areas around appurtenance attachments;

(vii) Areas near upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly attachments;

(viii) Areas near suspension system attachments and connecting structures;

(ix) Known thin areas in the tank shell and nominal liquid level lines; and

(x) Connecting structures joining multiple cargo tanks of carbon steel in a self-supporting cargo tank motor vehicle.

(5) Minimum thicknesses for MC 300, MC 301, MC 302, MC 303, MC 304, MC 305, MC 306, MC 307, MC 310, MC 311, and MC 312 cargo tanks are shown in the tables below. The columns headed "Specified Manufactured Thickness" tabulate the minimum values required for new construction, generally found in Tables I and II of each specification. "In-Service Minimum Thicknesses" are based on 90 percent of the manufactured thickness as specified in the DOT specification, rounded to three places.

 Table I--Minimum Thickness for MC 300, MC 303, MC 304, MC 306, MC 307,
MC 310, MC 311 and MC 312 Specification Cargo Tanks Constructed of Steel
                            and Steel Alloys
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     Nominal
                                                     decimal      In-
  Specified manufactured thickness (US gauge or    equivalent   service
                     inches)                           for      minimum
                                                    reference  thickness
                                                    (inches)    (inches)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
19...............................................      0.0418      0.038
18...............................................      0.0478      0.043
17...............................................      0.0538      0.048
16...............................................      0.0598      0.054
15...............................................      0.0673      0.061
14...............................................      0.0747      0.067
13...............................................      0.0897      0.081
12...............................................      0.1046      0.094
11...............................................      0.1196      0.108
10...............................................      0.1345      0.121
9................................................      0.1495      0.135
8................................................      0.1644      0.148
7................................................      0.1793      0.161
3/16.............................................      0.1875      0.169
1/4..............................................      0.2500      0.225
5/16.............................................      0.3125      0.281
3/8..............................................      0.3750      0.338
------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Table II--Minimum Thickness for MC 301, MC 302, MC 304, MC 305, MC 306,
   MC 307, MC 311 and MC 312 Specification Cargo Tanks Constructed of
                      Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  In-
                                                                service
          Specified manufactured thickness (inches)             minimum
                                                               thickness
                                                                (inches)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.078........................................................      0.070
0.087........................................................      0.078
0.096........................................................      0.086
0.109........................................................      0.098
0.130........................................................      0.117
0.141........................................................      0.127
0.151........................................................      0.136
0.172........................................................      0.155
0.173........................................................      0.156
0.194........................................................      0.175
0.216........................................................      0.194
0.237........................................................      0.213
0.270........................................................      0.243
0.360........................................................      0.324
0.450........................................................      0.405
0.540........................................................      0.486
------------------------------------------------------------------------

(6) An owner of a cargo tank that no longer conforms with the minimum thickness prescribed for the maximum lading density marked on the specification plate may use the cargo tank to carry lading of lower density under the following conditions:

(i) A Design Certifying Engineer must certify that the cargo tank design and thickness is appropriate for the lower density lading, by issuance of a new manufacturer's certificate, and

(ii) The tank's nameplate must be changed to reflect the new service limits (maximum density of lading).

(7) An owner of a cargo tank that no longer conforms with the minimum thickness prescribed for the specification may not return the cargo tank to hazardous materials service. The tank's specification plate must be removed, obliterated or covered in a secure manner.

(8) The inspector must record the results of the thickness test as specified in §  180.417(b).

[Amdt. 180-2, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 21038, May 22, 1990; 55 FR 37067, Sept. 7, 1990; 56 FR 27878, June 17, 1991; Amdt 180-3, 57 FR 45466, Oct. 1, 1992; Amdt. 180-4, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; Amdt. 180-6, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; Amdt. 180-7, 59 FR 55177, 55178, Nov. 3, 1994; 60 FR 17402, Apr. 5, 1995; Amdt. 180-9, 61 FR 27176, May 30, 1996; Amdt. 180-10, 61 FR 51342, Oct. 1, 1996; 64 FR 28051, May 24, 1999; 65 FR 58632, Sept. 29, 2000]